Jul 26, 2013

On Being Rum in Turkey in 1956: A Letter from Yakovos Bilek to Prime Minister Menderes



a letter from Yakovos Bilek to Prime Minister Menderes


From the 1940s through the 1970s, Yakovos Bilek (photo right, courtesy of Milliyet) was one of the foremost names in Turkish basketball. In addition to achieving on-court success as a player then international referee, Bilek served as head coach for Beşiktaş as well as the German national team (were he earned the title "Miracle Man" for bringing the team from 28th to 14th in the European league). He sent the following letter to Prime Minister Adnan Menderes in the context of escalating hostility toward local Greek Orthodox citizens (referred to in Turkish as Rum) over the Cyprus dispute. A year earlier, rioting during the 6th and 7th, of September, 1955, targeted Rum businesses and churches in Istanbul and Izmir. Over a dozen people were killed in the violence, which dramatically accelerated the emigration of Istanbul's Rum community. Menderes himself was charged with responsibility for orchestrating the riots following the 1960 coup. Though there exists no evidence to date suggesting the Menderes government anticipated the full scale of the violence, there is evidence that they supported the riots, both tacitly and directly, as a way of demonstrating the Turkish people's resolve over the Cyprus question. Yakovos Bilek died in Athens on May 4th, 2005.




                                                                                                            Yakovos Bilek
                                                                                                            PK 105 - Beyoglu
Adnan Menderes
Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey
Park Hotel
The City

Esteemed Sir,

When the Greeks occupied Izmit, they ordered my late father: Take off your fez and put on a hat. He disobeyed their order saying: You are guests here. One day soon you will go back to where you came from. I feed my family with this fez. This is my homeland.” (He was a tobacco expert. By the name of Todori). He raised us with this idea, and my brother and I regarded - and regard - this land as our true homeland. I rose to the highest rank an athletic youth can: I started for the Turkish National Basketball team when we routed them [the Greeks] on their own court in Athens. And in Istanbul we lost the rematch, but I personally scored the most points. I became an international referee and, in Milan, Yugoslavia and the 1952 Olympics, I happily represented Turkey in this capacity. I represented my country with honor, as a Turk, with star and crescent on my chest. And I am proud of this.

But all of a sudden: “You minorities, there’s no place for you anymore. You’re parasites…” and so on. Personally, I’m not worried about these inappropriate words, but as the father of two girls I have to think about my children’s future.

The thing I want to be sure on:  What does “you minorities” mean? I feel just as Turkish as a Muslim Turk. After completing all my duties, will my “Turkishness” be taken from me on account of religion? I am a sports writer for Istanbul Express and Mr. Mitat Perin knows me well. Why do I feel myself wronged, why do I feel estranged from my own country? With all honesty I can assure you that the whole Rum community in Istanbul thinks the way I do. Greece doesn’t concern us, nor does its wrong and mistaken policies. On every matter we truly think like Turks, including the Cyprus question. We each desire to count ourselves among the country’s twenty four million Turks and work and be successful for our country’s future with peace and honor. History has shown us that “the fate of fantasy-prone nations is destruction.”

Of you I ask for our continued existence in our beautiful and fortunate Turkey, and for the alleviation of our worries. I respectfully thank you for accepting my truest feelings of admiration.

Source: Başbakanlık Cumhuriyet Arşivi, 030_01_00_00_133_870_2

"Kadı"nın Günlüğü

Selim Karahasanoğlu

Sadreddinzade günlüğünden
örnek sayfalar
Kaynak: BOA, KK 7500, 158-159
Osmanlı tarihyazımında cevabı aranan önemli bir soru da Osmanlı kültüründe günlük, anı, hatırat gibi ben anlatılarının bulunup bulunmadığıdır. Bu bölümümüzde Selim Karahasanoğlu ile son çalışması Sadreddinzade Telhisi Mustafa Efendi ceridesi hakkında konuştuk. 18. yüzyılın önde gelen ulema ailelerinden birine mensup bu Osmanlı kadısının 24 yıl boyunca düzenli olarak tuttuğu bu günlüğün tarihsel kaynak olarak değerine ve  Avrupa'daki diğer örneklerle arasındaki fark ve benzerliklere değindik. Ayrıca, yazma kütüphanelerinde karşılaşılan kurumsal zorlukların nasıl Osmanlı kültür tarihi araştırmalarının önünü tıkadığının altını çizerek, bir kaç eser üzerinden genellemeler yapmanın zorluğundan bahsettik.

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18. yüzyıl Osmanlı tarihi üzerine uzmanlaşan Dr. Selim Karahasanoğlu İstanbul Medeniyet Üniversitesi'nde öğretim üyeliği yapmaktadır. (see his page)
Yeniçağ Akdeniz ve Osmanlı İmparatorluğu üzerine uzmanlaşan Dr. Emrah Safa Gürkan İstanbul 29 Mayıs Üniversitesi'nde öğretim üyeliği yapmaktadır. (see academia.edu)

SEÇME KAYNAKÇA


Selim Karahasanoğlu
Akçetin, Elif. “A Frustrated Scholar of the Post-Conquest Generation: Wang Jingqi (1672-1726) and his Casual Jottings of my Journey to the West (1724).” Basılmamış Makale.
Behrendt, S. D. A. J. H. Latham, D. Northrup. The Diary of Antera Duke, an Eighteenth-Century African Slave Trader (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).
Beydilli, Kemal. Osmanlı Döneminde İmamlar ve Bir İmamın Günlüğü (İstanbul: TATAV, 2001).
Çeçen, Halil, haz. Niyazî-i Mısrî’nin Hatıraları (İstanbul: Dergah Yayınları, 2006).
Çelebi, İlyas. “Rüya.” DİA, cilt: 35 (İstanbul: Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı, 2008), 306-309.
Di Cosmo, Nicola. haz., The Diary of a Manchu Soldier in Seventeenth-Century China: “My Service in the Army,” by Dzengšeo (London: Routledge, 2007).
Elger, Ralf ve Yavuz Köse. eds. Many Ways of Speaking About the Self: Middle Eastern Ego-Documents in Arabic, Persian, and Turkish (14th-20th century) (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2010).
Erünsal, İsmail E. “Bir Osmanlı Efendisi’nin Günlüğü: Sadreddinzâde Telhisî Mustafa Efendi ve Cerîdesi.” Kaynaklar, 2 (1984): 77-81.
“Türk Edebiyatı Tarihinin Arşiv Kaynakları III: Telhisî Mustafa Efendi Ceridesi,” Ege Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2 (1983): 37-42.
Hassam, Andrew. Writing and Reality: A Study of Modern British Diary Fiction (Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993).
_____. “Reading Other People’s Diaries.” University of Toronto Quarterly, 56: 3 (1987): 435-442.
Houldbrooke, Ralph, ed. English Family Life, 1576-1716: An Anthology from Diaries (New York: Basil Blackwell, 1989).
Huff, Cynthia A. “Reading a Re-Vision: Approaches to Reading Manuscript Diaries.” Biography, 23: 3 (2000): 504-523.
Işıközlü, Fazıl. “Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivinde Yeni Bulunmuş Olan ve Sadreddin Zâde Telhisî Mustafa Efendi Tarafından Tutulduğu Anlaşılan H. 1123 (1711)-1148 (1735) Yıllarına Ait Bir Ceride (Jurnal) ve Eklentisi.” 7. Türk Tarih Kongresi: Kongreye Sunulan Bildiriler, cilt: 2 (Ankara: TTK, 1973), 508-534.
Jarrick, Arne. Back to Modern Reason: Johan Hjerpe and Other Petit Bourgeois in Stockholm in the Age of Enlightenment (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1999).
Jones, Susan E. “Reading Leonard Thompson: The Diary of a Nineteenth-Century New Englander.” Atenea, 24: 2 (2004): 117-127.
Kafadar, Cemal. “Self and Others: The Diary of a Dervish in Seventeenth Century Istanbul and First-Person Narratives in Ottoman Literature.” Studia Islamica, 69 (1989): 121-150.
Káldy Nagy, Gy.  “Kādī: Ottoman Empire.” EI2, cilt: 4 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1978), 375.
Karahasanoğlu, Selim. “A Tulip Age Legend: Consumer Behavior and Material Culture in the Ottoman Empire (1718-1730).” Basılmamış Doktora Tezi, State University of New York at Binghamton, 2009.
_____. “Osmanlı Literatüründe Ben-Anlatılarına (Ego-dokumente) Katkı: Sadreddinzade Telhisi Mustafa Efendi Günlüğü (1711-1735).” 20th Ciépo Symposium, New Trends in Ottoman Studies: Programme&Abstracts (Rethymno: Grafotehniki, 2012), 87-88.
_____. “1700′lerin başında Kadı Mustafa Efendi’nin Günlüğünden: Cariyeyi Rızasız Eve Kapayan Doktor Dükkânı Önünde Asıldı.” Atlas Tarih, 12 (2012): 45.
_____. "İstanbul'un Lale Devri mi?: Tarih ve Tarih Yazımı." Tarih İçinde İstanbul Uluslararası Sempozyumu: Bildiriler, yay. haz. D. Hut, Z. Kurşun, A. Kavas (İstanbul, 2011), 440-443.
Kuhn-Osius, K. Eckhard. “Making Loose End Meets: Private Journals in the Public Realm.” The German Quarterly, 54: 2 (1981): 166-176.
Lejeune, Philippe. “The Practive of the Private Journal: Chronicle of an Investigation (1986-1998).” Marginal Voices, Marginal Forms: Diaries in European Literature and History (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1999), 185-211.
Makdisi, George. “The Diary in Islamic Historiography: Some Notes.” History and Theory, 25: 2 (1986): 173-185.
_____.Diary of an Eleventh-Century Historian of Baghdad-V.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies [BSOAS], 19: 3 (1957): 426-443.
_____.Diary of an Eleventh-Century Historian of Baghdad-IV.” BSOAS, 19: 2 (1957): 281-303.
_____.Diary of an Eleventh-Century Historian of Baghdad-III.” BSOAS, 19: 1 (1957): 13-48.
_____.Diary of an Eleventh-Century Historian of Baghdad-II.” BSOAS, 18: 2 (1956): 239-60.
_____. Diary of an Eleventh-Century Historian of Baghdad-I.BSOAS, 18: 1 (1956): 9-31.
Matthews, William. American Diaries: An Annotated Bibliography of American Diaries Written Prior to the Year 1861 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1945).
_____. British Diaries: An Annotated Bibliography of British Diaries Written between 1442 and 1942 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1950).
Paperno, Irina. “What Can Be Done with Diaries?.” The Russian Review, 63 (2004): 561-573.
Ransel, David L. A Russian Merchant’s Tale: The Life and Adventures of Ivan Alekseevich Tolchënov, Based on His Diary (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009).
_____. “The Diary of a Merchant: Insights into Eighteenth-Century Plebeian Life.” The Russian Review, 63 (2004): 594-608.
Sajdi, Dana. “A Room of His Own: The ‘History’ of the Barber of Damascus (fl. 1762).” The MIT Electronic Journal of Middle East Studies, 3 (2003).
_____.Peripheral Visions: The Worlds and Worldviews of Commoner Chroniclers in the 18th Century Ottoman Levant.” Basılmamış Doktora Tezi, Columbia University, 2002.
Saleh, Nabil. The Qadi and the Fortune Teller (Northampton: Interlink Publishing, 2008).
Sherman, Stuart. Telling Time: Clocks, Diaries and English Diurnal Form, 1660-1785 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996).
Struve, Lynn A.  “Self-Struggles of a Martyr: Memories, Dreams, and Obsessions in the Extant Diary of Huang Chunyao.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 69: 2 (2009): 343-394.
Şeyh Ahmet El-Bedirî El-Hallâk. Berber Bedirî’nin Günlüğü, 1741-1762: Osmanlı Taşra Hayatına İlişkin Olaylar. çev. Hasan Yüksel (Ankara: Akçağ, 1995).
Terzioğlu, Derin. “Man in the Image of God in the Image of the Times: Sufi Self-Narratives and the Diary of Niyazi-i Misri (1618-94).” Studia Islamica, 94 (2002): 139-165.
_____. “Sufi and Dissident in the Ottoman Empire Niyazi-i Mısri (1618-1694).” Basılmamış Doktora Tezi, Harvard University, 1999.
Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. A Midwife’s Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard Based on Her Diary, 1785-1812 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990).
Webb, Nigel ve Caroline. The Earl and His Butler in Constantinople: The Secret Diary of an English Servant among the Ottomans (London: I. B. Tauris, 2009).
White, Sam. The Climate of Rebellion in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).
Zilfi, Madeline C. “Bir Müderrisin Günlüğü: Osmanlı Biyografi Çalışmaları İçin Yeni Bir Kaynak.” çev. Selim Karahasanoğlu, Doğu Batı, 20 (2002): 184-194.

Jul 19, 2013

Painting the Peasant in Modern Turkey


with Seçil Yılmaz

hosted by Chris Gratien and Sam Dolbee

During the interwar period, nationalist and socialist movements throughout the world looked to the peasant as both the source and object of state programs wherein establishing a link between the center and the provinces was a critical part of fostering the sense of nation devised by elite intellectuals. In Turkey, the ideas of Ziya Gökalp regarding the importance of the Anatolian villager in the development of Turkish national culture are a prominent example of how interwar nationalists saw the peasant as the stuff of the nation. Within this context, various programs designed to link the center and the periphery both economically and culturally emerged, and in this episode, Seçil Yılmaz discusses one such project, which sent professionally-trained Turkish painters into the Anatolian countryside over the period of 1938 to 1943 to create artistic depictions of the Turkish nation.

iTunes

Seçil Yılmaz is a doctoral candidate in the Department of History at City University of New York studying disease and medicine in the Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey (see academia.edu)
Chris Gratien is a PhD candidate in the Department of History at Georgetown University (see academia.edu)
Sam Dolbee is a PhD candidate in the department of Middle East Studies at New York University

Episode No. 114
Release date: 19 July 2013

IMAGES

Images of the Yurt Gezileri paintings have been published by the Milli Reasürans Art Gallery in Istanbul in a book entitled Yurt gezileri ve yurt resimleri

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY


Akgül, Alphan. “Sanatçının Kendiliğinden Felsefesi, Görsel İdeoloji ve Ressamların yurt Gezileri”, Dipnot, no. 1, (Yaz 2003).

Dino, Abidin. Kısa Hayat Öyküm, ed.Ferit Edgü. İstanbul : YKY, 1995.

Erol, Turan. “Ressamların Yurt Gezileri ve Sonuçları” in Yurt Gezileri ve Yurt Resimleri, İstanbul: Milli Reasürans Sanat Galerisi, 1998.

Germener, Sema. “Cumhuriyet Resmi” in Cumhuriyetin Renkleri Biçimleri, İstanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları,1998.

Karaduman, Hüseyin “Eski Eser Yasalarında Özel Müzeler, Koleksiyonculuk, Ticaret ve Müzayedeler, in 4. Müzecilik Semineri : Bildiriler 16 - 18 Eylül 1998. İstanbul : Askeri Müze, 1998.

Karaömerlioğlu, Asım M. “Tek Parti Dönemi’nde Halkçılık”, in Modern Türkiye'de Siyasi Düşünce: Kemalizm, Murat Belge (ed.). İstanbul : İletişim Yayınları, 2004.

Karaömerlioğlu, Asım M. “Tek Parti Döneminde Halkevleri ve Halkçılık”, Toplum Bilim 88, (Bahar 2001)

Koçak, Orhan. “1920’lerden 1970’lere Kültür Politikaları” in Modern Türkiye'de Siyasi Düşünce: Kemalizm Murat Belge (ed.). İstanbul : İletişim Yayınları, 2004.

Öndin, Nilüfer. Cumhuriyet’in Kültür Politikası ve Sanat, İnsancıl Yayınları:İstanbul, 2003.

Yaman, Zeynep Yasa.  “ Değişen Manzaralar: Kültür ve Modernite”, Sanat Dünyamız, no.89, (Güz 2003).

Yurt Gezileri ve Yurt Resimleri, İstanbul: Milli Reasürans Sanat Galerisi, 1998.

Jul 11, 2013

Local Autonomy and the Tanzimat | Elektra Kostopoulou



113.    The Question of Late Ottoman Decentralization

Turkish official with 'sole survivor'
of village of 350 in Candia, Crete (1897)
Source: Library of Congress
The Tanzimat era is conventionally viewed as a period of centralization in the Ottoman Empire, and as such, any concessions to local interests or extensions of autonomy during this period are viewed as a failure of state policy. However, given the aspects of decentralization also contained within late Ottoman reform, it is worth considering local autonomy as a strategy employed by the Ottomans in their attempt to govern disparate territories. In this episode, Elektra Kostopoulou explores these issues and discusses the transformation of Ottoman rule in Crete during the nineteenth century and the eventual creation of an autonomous region the in 1898.

Elektra Kostopoulou holds a PhD in History from Boğaziçi University and is currently a visiting scholar at New York University. (see academia.edu)
Chris Gratien is a doctoral candidate at Georgetown University researching the social and environmental history of the Ottoman Empire and the modern Middle East. (see academia.edu)


Citation: "Local Autonomy and the Tanzimat: the Case of Crete," Elektra Kostopoulou and Chris Gratien, Ottoman History Podcast, No. 113 (July 11, 2013) http://www.ottomanhistorypodcast.com/2011/07/autonomous-crete-greece.html.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY


Flag of Autonomous Crete (1898-1913)
Abu-Husayn, Abdul-Rahim. The View from Istanbul: Lebanon and the Druze Emirate in the Ottoman Chancery Documents, 1546-1711. London: I.B. Tauris, 2004.

Abu-Manneh, Butrus. “Jerusalem in the Tanzimat Period: The New Ottoman Administration and the Notables.” Die Welt Des Islams 30, no. 1/4 (1990): 143-168. doi:10.2307/1571044.

———. “Mehmed Ali Pasa and Sultan Mahmud II: The Genesis of a Conflict.” Turkish Historical Review 1, no. 1 (2010): 1–24. doi:10.1163/187754610X495003.

———. “The Sultan and the Bureaucracy: The Anti-Tanzimat Concepts of Grand Vizier Mahmud Nedim Paşa.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 22, no. 03 (1990): 257–274. doi:10.1017/S0020743800034061.

Adıyeke, Ayşe Nükhet. Fethinden kaybına Girit. İstanbul: Babıali Kültür Yayıncılığı, 2007.

Anscombe, Frederick F., ed. The Ottoman Balkans, 1750-1830. Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2006.

Barkey, Karen. Bandits and Bureaucrats : the Ottoman Route to State Centralization. Ithaca  N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1997.

Blumi, I. “Teaching Loyalty in the Late Ottoman Balkans: Educational Reform in the Vilayets of Manastir and Yanya, 1878-1912.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 21, no. 1–2 (January 2001): 15–23. doi:10.1215/1089201X-21-1-2-15.

Çetinsaya, Gökhan. Ottoman Administration of Iraq, 1890-1908. London: Rutledge, 2006.

Deringil, Selim. “Legitimacy Structures in the Ottoman State: The Reign of Abdulhamid II (1876-1909).” International Journal of Middle East Studies 23, no. 3 (August 1991): 345–359.

———. The Well-Protected Domains: Ideology and the Legitimation of Power in the Ottoman Empire, 1876-1909. London: I.B. Tauris, 1999.

———. “‘They Live in a State of Nomadism and Savagery’: The Late Ottoman Empire and the Post-Colonial Debate.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 45, no. 02 (2003): 311–342. doi:10.1017/S001041750300015X.

Doumani, Beshara. Rediscovering Palestine: Merchants and Peasants in Jabal Nablus, 1700-1900. Berkley: University of California Press, 1995.

Eldem, Edhem, "Ottoman Financial Integration with Europe: Foreign Loans, the Ottoman Bank and the Ottoman Public Debt.” European Review 13, no. 3 (2005): 431–445.

Emrence, Cem. “Imperial Paths, Big Comparisons: The Late Ottoman Empire.” Journal of Global History 3 (2008): 289–311.

Fahmy, Khaled. All The Pasha’s Men: Mehmed Ali, His Army and the Making of Modern Egypt. New York: American University in Cairo Press, 1997.

Greene, Molly. A Shared World: Christians and Muslims in the Early Modern Mediterranean. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Heper, Metin. “Center and Periphery in the Ottoman Empire: With Special Reference to the Nineteenth Century.” International Political Science Review 1, no. 1 (1980): 81–105.

Kafadar, Cemal. “The Question of Ottoman Decline.” Harvard Middle Eastern and Islamic Review 4, no. 1 (1998 1997): 30–75.

Kayalı, Hasan. Arabs and Young Turks : Ottomanism, Arabism, and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1918. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Khoury, Dina Rizk, and Dane Kennedy. “Comparing Empires: The Ottoman Domains and the British Raj in the Long Nineteenth Century.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 27, no. 2 (2007): 233–244.

Klein, Janet. The Margins of Empire Kurdish: Militias in the Ottoman Tribal Zone. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2011.

Konortas, Paraskevas. “From Ta’ife to Millet: Ottoman Terms for the Greek Orthodox Community.” In Ottoman Greeks in the Age of Nationalism: Politics, Economy, and Society in the Nineteenth Century, edited by D. Gondicas and C. P Issawi. Princeton: Darwin Press, 1999.

Kuehn, Thomas. Empire, Islam, and Politics of Difference : Ottoman Rule in Yemen, 1849-1919. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2011.

Makdisi, Ussama Samir. The Culture of Sectarianism: Community, History, and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press, 2000.

Mikhail, Alan, and Christine M. Philliou. “The Ottoman Empire and the Imperial Turn.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 54, no. 04 (2012): 721–745. doi:10.1017/S0010417512000394.

Philliou, Christine M, “The Ottoman Empire’s Absent Nineteenth Century: Autonomous Subjects.” In Untold Histories of the Middle East: Recovering Voices from the 19th and 20th Centuries, edited by Amy Singer, Christoph K. Neumann, and Selçuk Akşin Somel, 143–178. Oxon: Taylor & Francis, 2011.

Powell, Eve Troutt. A Different Shade of Colonialism: Egypt, Great Britain, and the Mastery of the Sudan. Berkley: University of California Press, 2003.

Rogan, Eugene L. Frontiers of the State in the Late Ottoman Empire: Transjordan, 1850-1921. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.


Yazbak, Maḥmūd. Haifa in the Late Ottoman Period, 1864-1914: A Muslim Town in Transition. Leiden: Brill, 1998.

IMAGES

Postcard of Crete


Küçük Hasan or Janissaries’ mosque in Chania (western Crete), 17th century
Source: Elektra Kostopoulou

Arrival of the Post

Cretan Gendarmerie



Music: Ross Daly - Hatif

Jul 4, 2013

Anadolu'ya Bir Göç Öyküsü


Mehtap Çelik

112.    Mersin Atlılar Köyü 

Eski Çerkez Göçmen Evi, Atlılar Köyü (2010)
Osmanlının 19. yy’da karşılaştığı en büyük sosyal ve politik meselelerden biri şüphesiz ki muhacir sorunudur. Rus devleti, eski Osmanlı toprakları olan Kafkasya ve Kırım’a yerleşmeye yönelik bir siyaseti benimseyip bölgedeyayıldıkça, yerli Müslüman nüfusa kaçmaktan başka bir çare kalmamıştı. Osmanlı, devlet nüfuzunun sınırlı olduğu seyrek nüfuslu bölgelere, yeni gelenleri yerleştirmek için yoğun çaba sarfetti. Ciddi sıkıntılara girerek, Anadolu ve Suriye boyunca sayısız muhacir yerleşimi kuruldu. Bu yerleşimlerin bir çoğu zamanın getirdiklerine dayanamadı ama Adana-Mersin bölgesinden bir örnek olan Atlılar köyünde Muhacirler kuşaklar boyunca varlıklarını sürdürebildiler. Bu bölümümüzde Mehtap Çelik, Atlılar Köyü ile ilgili yaptığı araştırmadan bahsetmektedir.

During the nineteenth century, one of the major social and political issues faced by the Ottoman Empire was Muslim immigration from the Russian sphere. As the Russian Empire expanded into Crimea and the Caucasus, hundreds of thousands of individuals flocked to the Ottoman lands. The Ottoman state sought to settle these newcomers in sparsely populated regions where state power was limited. Not without serious hardship, numerous settlements were founded throughout Anatolia and Syria. Many did not withstand the test of time, but in this episode, Mehtap Çelik tells the story of one such settlement, the Circassian village of Atlılar near Mersin (podcast is in Turkish).



Mehtap Çelik Mersin Üniversitesi Tarih Bölümü'nde ders vermektedir. 
Harika Zöhre Mersin Üniversitesi Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Anabilim Dalı araştırma görevlisidir. (bkz. academia.edu)
Yakınçağ Orta Doğu Tarihi çalışan Chris Gratien Georgetown Üniversitesi'nde doktora yapmaktadır.   (bkz. academia.edu)

SEÇME KAYNAKÇA

Mersin İskelesi (19. yüzyılın sonları)
Sözlü tarih bilgileri özellikle Mehtep Çelik ve Tülin Selvi Ünlü'nün tarafında 2010'da Habibe Şahin ile yapılan görüşmeden kaynaklanmaktadır

Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (Istanbul)
Tarsus Şeriyye Sicilleri (Milli Kütüphanesi, Ankara)

Bala, Mirza, “Çerkesler”, İslam Ansiklopedisi, C. 3 (1986).
Barker, William Burckhardt, Cilicia and its Governers, Ingram, London: Cooke and Co.,1853.
Bice, Hayati, Kafkaslar’dan Anadoluya Göçler, Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları, Ankara, 1991.
Çavdar, Tevfik. Bir Örgüt Ustasının Yaşam Öyküsü, Ankara 1984.
Develi, Şinasi, Dünden Bugüne Mersin, 1836-1990, MTSO Yayınları, Mersin, 2001.
Habiçoğlu, Bedri, Kafkaslardan Anadolu’ya Göçler, Nart Yayıncılık, İstanbul, 1993.
Bozkurt, İbrahim, Salnamelerde Mersin, Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Mersin Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Mersin, 2001.
Karayandı, Fatih, Ceyhan ve Yöresindeki Kırım Tatarları ve Nogaylar, Ceyhan Belediyesi Kültür Hizmetleri, Adana, 2006.
Tavkul, Ufuk, Karaçay-Malkar Destanları, Türk Dil kurumu Yayınları, Ankara, 2004.
Tuna, Rahmi, “Çerkeslerin Kafkasya’dan Göçü”, İstanbul Kafkas Kültür Derneği Konferansları No: 3 (1977).
Saydam, Abdullah, Kırım ve Kafkas Göçleri, Ankara, 1997.
Selvi Ünlü, Tülin, 19. Yüzyılda Mersin’in Kentsel Gelişimi, Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Mersin Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Mersin, 2004.
W.E.D. Allen-Paul Muratoff, Kafkas Harekatı: 1828-1921 Türk-Kafkas Sınırındaki Harplerin Tarihi, Genelkurmay Basımevi, Ankara, 1966.
Zoroğlu, Levent, Tarsus Tarihi ve Tarihsel Anıtları, Kemal Matbaası, Adana 1975.

MÜZİK 

Myaskovsky - Symphony 23 (on Kabardian themes)
Abida Omar'ın Ürdün'de yaptığı performansı

GÖRSELLER


Women in Dagestan (Prokudin-Gorskii, c1910)



Pyotr Nikolayevich Gruzinsky, The Mountaineers Leave the Aul (1872)

Circassian Village, Wadi Seer, Jordan (c1920)
Group portrait of eight Circassian men in uniform, with another man, possibly an Ottoman official
Abdullah Frères, c1880-1900 
Circassians (Oswald Madet c1920) from Pierre Redan, La Cilicie et le
probleme ottoman