Mar 22, 2014

The Lives of Ottoman Children

with Nazan Maksudyan

hosted by Chris Gratien

This episode is part of a series on Women, Gender, and Sex in Ottoman history

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Much has been written about shifts in the concept of childhood and the structure of families, particularly for the period following industrialization. However, seldom do the voices and experiences of children find their way into historical narratives. In this podcast, Nazan Maksudyan offers some insights about how to approach the history of children and childhood and discusses the lives of Ottoman children during the empire's last decades.

Nazan Maksudyan is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology at Istanbul Kemerburgaz University. Her work examines the social, cultural, and economic history of children and youth during the late Ottoman period. (see
Chris Gratien is a doctoral candidate at Georgetown University researching the social and environmental history of the Ottoman Empire and the modern Middle East. (see

Episode No. 150
Release date: 22 March 2014
Location: Istanbul Kemerburgaz University
Editing and Production by Chris Gratien
Bibliography and images courtesy of Nazan Maksudyan

Citation: "The Lives of Ottoman Children," Nazan Maksudyan and Chris Gratien, Ottoman History Podcast, No. 150 (22 March 2014)


Nazan Maksudyan, Orphans and Destitute Children in Late Ottoman Empire (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2014).

Nazan Maksudyan, “Foster-Daughter or Servant, Charity or Abuse: Beslemes in the Late Ottoman Empire”, Journal of Historical Sociology, vol. 21, no. 4, December 2008, pp. 488-512.

Yahya Araz, Osmanlı Toplumunda Çocuk Olmak (İstanbul: Kitap Yayınevi, 2013).

Mine Göğüş Tan, Özlem Şahin, Mustafa Sever, Aksu Bora, Cumhuriyet'te Çocuktular (İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınevi, 2007).
François Georgeon, Klaus Kreiser (eds.), Childhood and Youth in the Muslim World (Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose, 2007).

Elizabeth W. Fernea, ed., Children in the Muslim Middle East (Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 1996).

_________, ed., Remembering Childhood in the Middle East: Memoirs from a Century of Change (Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 2003).

Karen Sanchez-Eppler, Dependent States: The Child's Part in Nineteenth-Century American Culture (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2005).

Carl Ipsen, Italy in the Age of Pinocchio: Children and Danger in the Liberal Era (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006).

Marjatta Rahikainen, Centuries of Child Labor: European Experiences from the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Century (Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing, 2004).


Nursery/Wet-nursing Ward (ırzahane) of Darülaceze in Ottoman Istanbul
Band of Ottoman islahhane (reform home) in Salonika
Surgery patients at Hamidiye Children's Hospital in Istanbul, c1905

Mar 21, 2014

Test Voice Recordings on Different Devices

Laptop Mic | Toshiba Satellite

Smartphone | BLU Advance

Smartphone | iPhone 6

Lav Mic | Sony ECMCS3

Stereo Mic | Zoom H2

Stereo Mic | Zoom H6

Dynamic Mic | Behringer Ultravoice

Dynamic Mic | Shure SM58

Mar 16, 2014

Common Ground and Imagined Communities | Daniel Pontillo

The study of discourse already occupies a prominent place within the humanities, but what can the study of a much differently defined discourse in the study of language offer to fields such as history? In this episode, we attempt to bridge the gap between language and cognitive science and the field of history through a comparison of two analogous concepts: the linguistic notion of "common ground" and a sociological understanding of "the imagined community."

Daniel Pontillo is a doctoral candidate in Brain and Cognitive Science at the University of Rochester
Chris Gratien is a doctoral candidate at Georgetown University researching the social and environmental history of the Ottoman Empire and the modern Middle East. (see

Episode No. 149
Release Date: 16 March 2014
Location: Rochester, NY
Editing and Production: Chris Gratien

Special acknowledgements to Ayça Baydar and her podcast on Karamanlı culture the "conversation with a Rum peasant" described in the episode.

Citation: "Common Ground and Imagined Communities," Daniel Pontillo and Chris Gratien, Ottoman History Podcast, No. 149 (16 March 2014)

Listeners might also like:

#040 Gaze: Eyes, Seeing and Being Seen | Daniel Pontillo
#114 Painting the Peasant in Modern Turkey | Seçil Yılmaz
#065 Karamanlı Culture in the Ottoman Empire | Ayça Baydar
#126 Jewish Citizens on Exhibit | Alma Heckman
#084 Palestinianism and Zionism in the Ottoman Empire | Louis Fishman

Note for the listener: This podcast is not primarily a work of primary source research. It is a synthesis of publicly available information and draws extensively from the works below, which are also mentioned during the course of the episode. For the purposes of academic citation, we encourage you to consult these works.


Clark, Herbert H. Arenas of Language Use. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 1991. 

Mar 8, 2014

Alevis in Ottoman Anatolia

with Ayfer Karakaya-Stump

hosted by Chris Gratien

The history of Anatolia's Alevi or Kizilbash community has long been written by outsiders who have variously portrayed them as mysterious, heretical, heterodox, or uncivilized. Alevism has been often juxtaposed with the high religion would-be orthodox Sunni practice. This historical understanding of Alevis has continued to influence the way these communities are represented in the present. In this episode, Ayfer Karakaya-Stump challenges this binary. Drawing on previously unexamined sources produced by the Ottoman Alevi community itself, she seeks a new road to understanding Alevism and the relationship of Alevi communities with the Ottoman and Safavid states, Sufi movements of the time, and the communities that surrounded them.

Ayfer Karakaya-Stump is Assistant Professor of History at the College of William & Mary (faculty page)
Chris Gratien is a doctoral candidate at Georgetown University researching the social and environmental history of the Ottoman Empire and the modern Middle East. (see

Episode No. 148
Release Date: 8 March 2014
Location: Beyoğlu, Istanbul
Editing and Production: Chris Gratien
Bibliography courtesy of Ayfer Karakaya-Stump

Listeners might also like:

#117 Sufism and Society | John Curry
#093 Tedirgin Anadolu | Taylan Akyıldırım
#037 Zazaki and Zazas in Turkey | Chris Gratien

Citation: "Beyond Heterodoxy: Kizilbash/Alevis in Ottoman Anatolia," Ayfer Karakaya-Stump and Chris Gratien, Ottoman History Podcast, No. 148 (8 March 2014)


Ayfer Karakaya-Stump, “The Wafā‘iyya, the Bektashiyye and Genealogies of ‘Heterodox’ Islam in Anatolia: Rethinking the Köprülü Paradigm.” Turcica (44) 2012-2013: 279-300.

__________, “The Forgotten Dervishes: The Bektashi Convents in Iraq and their Kizilbash Clients.” International Journal of Turkish Studies 16, no. 1&2 (2011): 1-24.

_________, “Documents and Buyruk Manuscripts in the Private Archives of Alevi Dede Families: An Overview.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 37, no. 3 (Dec. 2010): 273-286.

_________, “The Emergence of the Kızılbaş in Western Thought: Missionary Accounts and Their Aftermath,” in David Shankland (ed.), Archaeology, Anthropology and Heritage in the Balkans and Anatolia: The Life and Times of F.W. Hasluck 1878-1920. Vol. 2, pp. 329-353. Istanbul: Isis Press, 2004.

Ahmet T. Karamustafa “Yesevîlik, Melâmetîlik, Kalenderîlik, Vefâʾîlik ve Anadolu Tasavvufunun Kökenleri Sorunu.” In Osmanlı Toplumunda Tasavvuf ve Sufiler: Kaynaklar-Doktrin-Ayin ve Erkan-Tarikatlar-Edebiyat-Mimari-İkonografi-Modernizm, edited by Ahmed Yaşar Ocak, 61-88. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 2005.

------------. God’s Unruly Friends: Dervish Groups in the Islamic Later Middle Period 1200-1550. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1994.

Abdülbaki Gölpınarlı, “İslam ve Türk İllerinde Fütüvvet Teşkilâtı ve Kaynakları.” İstanbul Üniversitesi İktisat Fakültesi Mecmuası 11, no. 1-4 (October 1949-July 1950).

Derin Terzioğlu, "How to Conceptualize Ottoman Sunnitization: A Historiographical Discussion," Turcica (44) 2012-2013.

Mazzaoui, Michel M. The Origins of the Ṣafawids: Šī ‘ism, Ṣūfism, and the Ġulāt. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1972.

Zeynep Yürekli, Architecture and Hagiography in the Ottoman Empire: The Politics of Bektashi Shrines in the Classical Age, University of Oxford, 2012.

Mar 1, 2014

Muslims in the Middle Kingdom | Kelly Hammond

147.     China's Muslim Communities

China is home to one of the world's largest Muslim populations, and the history of Islam in China is almost as old as the religion itself. In this episode, Kelly Hammond offers an overview of the history of Muslims in China, their links to the greater Muslim world, and their experience during the Japanese occupation of the World War II era.

Kelly Hammond is a PhD candidate in East Asian history at Georgetown University researching Muslims in East Asia during WWII. (see
Chris Gratien is a doctoral candidate at Georgetown University researching the social and environmental history of the Ottoman Empire and the modern Middle East. (see


Armijo, Jackie. “Chinese Madrasas and Linkages to Islamic Schools Abroad.” in Farish A. Noor, Yoginder Sikand and Martin van Bruinessen, eds. The Madrasa in Asia: Political Activism and Transnational Linkages. Amsterdam: Isim Series on Contemporary Muslim Societies from Amsterdam University Press, 1998: 169-187.
Aydin, Cemil. The Politics of Anti-Westernism in Asia: Visions of World Order in Pan-Islamic and Pan-Asian Thought. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007. 
Ben-Dor Benite, Zvi. “From ‘Literati’ to ‘Ulama’: the origins of Chinese Muslim Nationalist historiography.” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 2004 (9): 83-109.
Islamoglu, Huri and Peter Perdue, eds. Shared histories of modernity—China, India and the Ottoman Empire. London: Routeledge, 2009.
Lipman, Jonathan. Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997.
Mosca, Matthew W. “Empire and the circulation of frontier intelligence: Qing conceptions of the Ottomans.”  Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. (May 2010) 70:1: 147-207.
Saaler and Szpilman, eds. (2011) Pan-Asianism: A Documentary History. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2011.


Chinese-Arabic dictionary, c. 1910

Beijing Mosque, c.1930

Chinese Islamic calligraphy