Galata and the Capitulations

with Fariba Zarinebaf

hosted by Nir Shafir and Zoe Griffith

The capitulations, a series of bilateral agreements with European states and merchants, are sometimes held up as symbols of early Ottoman concessions to European powers and the beginnings of Ottoman economic decline. This misreading, which is in part the product of a misinterpretation of the word "capitulation" itself, impedes a proper understanding of Ottoman Empire and the legal context of the early modern Mediterranean. In this episode, Fariba Zarinebaf offers a different look at the capitulations or ahdnames within the broader context of law and diplomacy in Ottoman Galata and other port cities.

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Stream via Hipcast (Turkey / Türkiye)

Fariba Zarinebaf is an Associate Professor of History at University of California-Riverside. (see faculty page)
Nir Shafir is a doctoral candidate at UCLA studying Ottoman intellectual history. (see
Zoe Griffith is a doctoral candidate at Brown University studying the early modern Mediterranean. (see

Episode No. 144
Release date: 8 February 2014
Editing and production by Chris Gratien

Citation: "Galata, Ottoman Ports, and the Capitulations," Fariba Zarinebaf, Nir Shafir, and Zoe Griffith, Ottoman History Podcast, No. 144 (8 Feburary 2014)
Griffith is a doctoral candidate at Brown University studying the early modern Mediterranean - See more at:
Zoe Griffith is a doctoral candidate at Brown University studying the early modern Mediterranean - See more at:


IK said…
There are records of Turks and Persians in the Netherlands in the 17th century. There is even some evidence there were two mescid in Amsterdam. Most of the Ottoman traders in the dutch cities were Christians and Jews, but there seems to have been a muslim segment as well. Evliya Celebi is even said to have visited the Netherlands, though that is probably untrue. At least we know ceveral muslim traders and dignitaries visited the Netherlands and England during the early 17th century; those of Persia, the Ottoman Empire and Morroco.

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